Cerebral monitoring is utilized for managing severe head injuries in human beings. In addition, it is also utilized in the treatment of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, hepatic failure, and intracerebral hematoma, and during carotid artery surgery and after neurosurgery. Owing to the rising occurrence of traumatic brain hemorrhages and injuries, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors are experiencing rapid and cutting-edge technological advancements so that they may establish an efficient treatment regimen. Factors such as the rising number of accidents caused by traffic, the rising geriatric population, and the global expansion of trauma care centers are fuelling the market for intracranial pressure monitors.
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There are mainly three types of ICP monitors. TMR, a market intelligence company, elaborates upon these three devices in terms of their placement, functions, uses, and limitations.
• Intraventricular Catheters: This is the gold standard utilized for measuring the intracranial pressure. An intraventricular catheter is inserted via a right frontal burr hole to the inside of the lateral ventricle. Placement of the intraventricular catheter becomes difficult in case of a compression or displacement of the ventricle. Intraventricular catheters are utilized for the removal of cerebrospinal fluid and for administering drugs such as antibiotics and is attached to either a transducer or a saline manometer. The utilization of intraventricular catheters becomes complicated with any type of infections, but these blockages can be fixed by flushing the entire system and using catheters containing antibiotics.
• Intraparenchymal Monitors: These monitors are inserted in the brain by a small burr hole with a 4mm screw and are considered to be as efficient as intraventricular catheters. These monitors are accompanied by decreased rates of hemorrhages and infections. These are especially useful at times when ventricles are not accessible owing to compression due to raised intracranial pressure. Some of the limitations of intraparenchymal monitors are their inability to be recalibrated, the fact that therapeutic CSF drainage isn’t possible with them, and they are subject to drift if utilized for long periods of time.
• Subdural Pressure Transducers: These are extremely simple to place and are the least invasive type of devices. For placing subdural pressure transducers, the dura has to be pierced and the hollow device gets filled up with cerebrospinal fluid. During this filling, the pressure equalizes and the closed tubing filled with fluid passes the pressure into the transducer. With the usage of subdural pressure transducers, the rates of hemorrhages and infections have fallen, but this device isn’t as efficient as intraventricular catheters and intraparenchymal monitors. There can be a number of complications caused by the debris’ misplacement and occlusion. In addition, the removal of cerebrospinal fluid with this device is not possible.
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The prominent players operating in the market for intracranial pressure monitors include Haiying Medical, Codman & Shurtleff, Inc., HeadSense Medical, Inc., Medtronic, Inc., Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Spiegelberg GmbH & Co. KG, and Raumedic AG, SOPHYSA, among others.